The concept of sharing criminal justice information is not a new one. For decades, there have been significant efforts to share criminal justice information. In fact, as early as 1930, when the first interstate teletype connection went into service, law enforcement sought to exchange information as a potent weapon against crime.
In the '60s, many criminal justice organizations were managing and exchanging information using terminals routed to mainframe computers that, by the early '70s, evolved into minicomputer systems. Advancements in the mid-'80s led to the proliferation of personal computers and PC-based networks, where data began to be stored on file servers.
This automation revolution allowed individuals in an agency's office to share files and communicate more efficiently with one another and, in some cases, with other agencies. However, it also led to piecemeal interoperability where individual software applications were programmed to serve a single agency or group of agencies without regard for the need to share information across different computer platforms or even across the entire criminal justice domain.
We have come a long way from mainframe data sharing through the era of PC and server-assisted data sharing. It is now time to move toward an interoperable data sharing model that will allow current networks and applications to continue to exist and serve the agencies that designed them, while also sharing the data they collect and store across the entire criminal justice domain, locally and nationwide.
The Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Extensible Markup Language (XML) Data Model (Global JXDM) is the result of a collaborative effort of numerous agencies from all levels of the justice and public safety domains. The project was sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs (OJP)
, U.S. Department of Justice, with advice from the Global Advisory Committee (GAC)
and coordination by the XML Structure Task Force (XSTF)--an advisory team under the GAC's Global Infrastructure/Standards Working Group (GISWG). The XSTF consists of government and industry domain experts, technical managers, and engineers who identified data requirements, explored XML concepts, and applied XML best practices to the design and implementation of the Global JXDM. Technical development support was provided by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI)
, who played a key role in developing the software foundations for the Global JXDM. GTRI worked with the XSTF to create a comprehensive product that included a data model, a data dictionary, and an XML schema which together became known as the Global JXDM.
The Global JXDM endeavor began in March 2001 as a reconciliation of data definitions and evolved into a broad two-year effort to develop an XML-based framework that would enable the entire justice and public safety communities to effectively share information at all levels--laying the foundation for local, state, tribal, and national justice interoperability.
Approximately 16,000 justice and public safety-related data elements were collected from various local and state government sources. These were analyzed and reduced to around 2,000 unique data elements that were then incorporated into about 300 data objects, or reusable components, resulting in the Global Justice XML Data Dictionary (Global JXDD). The Global JXDD components have inherent qualities enabling access from multiple sources and reuse in multiple applications. In addition, the standardization of the core components resulted in significant potential for increased interoperability among and between justice and public safety information systems.
Since its first prerelease in April 2003, the Global JXDM (including the Global JXDD) has undergone an intensive review and validation process that included an open public comment period, pilot validation projects, an online feedback and error-reporting mechanism (Bugzilla Feedback
), and the Global JXDM Listserv
--a forum for sharing expertise and support. As a result, three prerelease versions that incorporated more than 100 modifications evolved into the operational version that is available today. Today, more than 50 law enforcement and justice-related projects have been implemented utilizing the Global JXDM, further demonstrating the flexibility and stability of the Global JXDM.
The following are historical documents relating to the general development of the Global Justice XML Data Model (Global JXDM) and the Global Justice XML Data Dictionary (Global JXDD).
The following are useful summaries and fact sheets relating to the development of the Global Justice XML Data Model (Global JXDM) and the Global Justice XML Data Dictionary (Global JXDD).
The following historical documents were written for more technical audiences and focus on specific technical aspects of the Global Justice XML Data Model (Global JXDM) and the Global Justice XML Data Dictionary (Global JXDD).