Prescription drug misuse, abuse, and diversion continue to have a devastating effect on communities throughout the country. What the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes as a “deadly epidemic of prescription pain killer abuse” affects communities in every state. Every day in the United States, more than 100 people die as a result of drug overdose. In response to this critical issue, states across America have established prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), an extremely useful but often underutilized tool. With support and guidance from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) and under the efforts of the Global Advisory Committee’s PDMP Task Team (including subject-matter experts in this specific field), Call to Action and Issue Brief: Justice System Use of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs—Addressing the Nation’s Prescription Drug and Opioid Abuse Epidemic was drafted to serve as an educational resource and call to action, underscoring the value of the justice enterprise’s participation in PDMPs from both the public safety and the public health perspective. This resource, directed toward justice practitioners and policymakers, addresses the following issues and meets the following needs: 1. Outlines PDMPs and their purpose 2. Highlights the value of PDMP data to law enforcement, probation and parole practitioners, and courts personnel 3. Underscores the importance of public health and public safety community partnerships 4. Outlines practices for effectively using PDMP data for justice purposes 5. Provides resources (including BJA’s Law Enforcement Naloxone Toolkit), promising practices, and implementation examples to promote transportability of solutions into other communities 6. Presents recommendations, call-to-action issues, and next steps to address the nation’s opioid epidemic The case is also made for strongly pursuing a capability of nationally interoperable PDMPs via the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Information Exchange (based on Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative-supported standards), facilitating information sharing about prescriptions of controlled substances across jurisdictions.