Crime Analysis Toolkit

About the Crime Analysis Toolkit

The Nationwide Crime Analysis Capability Building Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), to identify and evaluate promising practices to assist jurisdictions in enhancing their crime analysis capacity.

To help develop this toolkit, BJA selected and engaged three law enforcement agencies that represented both diversity and progressive crime analytical capacity. These police departments have known proficiencies in crime analysis and have established real time crime centers. They are also actively engaged in regional crime analysis capabilities. The police departments selected are located in Charlotte–Mecklenburg, Cleveland, and Tempe. Each of these sites was paired with research partners.

This toolkit provides the project findings and resources from these three sites, as well as other publicly available crime analysis resources that can help advance criminal justice decision making and enhance the impact of crime analysis. The toolkit was designed to enable users to explore resources and refine their approaches.

About the Project

The Nationwide Crime Analysis Capability Building Project was conducted through a cooperative agreement to the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR) from the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA). This project sought to identify, assess, and leverage best practices and lessons learned from agencies with existing crime analysis capabilities (CAC) and to develop standards and implementation strategies that could be replicated nationally by jurisdictions to improve efficiency and effectiveness. The end goal of the project was to incorporate the lessons learned and the tools applied and/or developed within the three agencies into a combined, finalized Implementation Toolkit.

A request for proposal (RFP) was developed for three awards to be made to agencies with a current analytic capability that were willing to participate in the project and work with subject-matter experts (SMEs) to enhance that capability. The RFP solicited agencies of the following types: a mid-sized agency, an agency with regional partnerships that may include a fusion center, and an agency that operates a real time crime center. The agencies ultimately selected to participate in project were the Tempe, Arizona, Police Department (mid-sized agency), the Cleveland, Ohio, Police Department (agency with regional partnerships), and the Charlotte–Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Police Department (operates a real time crime center). Case studies describing the projects conducted by each of the agencies can be viewed by selecting the categories of Real Time Crime Center, Regional Analysis, and Crime Metrics in the toolkit.

Each agency utilized SMEs to conduct their projects, and two SMEs worked directly with IIR staff members to provide guidance to the three agencies as they completed their projects. The following SMEs made significant contributions to the project:

IIR Subject-Matter Experts

Rachel B. Santos, Ph.D.
Dr. Rachel Boba Santos

Dr. Rachel Boba Santos is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Radford University in Radford, Virginia. Dr. Santos has been working with police organizations since 1994 and conducts practice-based research on police organizational change, transparency and communications as well as on the institutionalization and sustainability of problem solving, crime analysis, and accountability in police agencies to support their crime-reduction efforts. She co-created, with Dr. Roberto Santos, Stratified Policing and assists police agencies around the country and internationally implementing the organizational approach to institutionalize evidence-based crime-reduction practices. She has recently completed two experiments partnering with a police agency to test the effectiveness of systematic police response in both short-term and long-term property crime hot spots. Since 2000, she has led federally funded research and technical assistance projects in these areas for the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Community Policing Services, and the Bureau of Justice Assistance. From these projects, she has published many final reports, practitioner guidebooks, and articles for both academic and professional journals. She has published one of the only sole-authored books on crime analysis, Crime Analysis with Crime Mapping (2016), which is now in its fourth edition and has been translated into Chinese. Dr. Santos earned her master’s degree and doctor of philosophy in sociology from Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona.

Jamie L. Roush
Ms. Jamie Roush

Jamie L. Roush is co-founder and Chief Executive Officer of CRH Analysis Consulting, a provider for the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s crime analysis portfolio, and a consultant on numerous aspects of crime and intelligence analysis, including integration of social media with law enforcement data for operational decision making. Previously, Ms. Roush had a ten-year-plus career with the Jacksonville, Florida, Sheriff’s Office, starting as an analyst and commencing as the Crime Analysis Unit manager, commanding a unit of 20 public safety/crime analysts and supervisors. She is a frequent speaker at law enforcement conferences and an author in law enforcement publications on crime analysis and social media. Ms. Roush is a member of the George Mason University Evidence-Based Policing Hall of Fame for her commitment to using research and data analysis to improve police operations while in Jacksonville. She is an associate member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police and a member of the International Association of Crime Analysts. Ms. Roush holds a master of science degree in social science and a bachelor of arts degree in geography from the Florida State University. Follow her on Twitter at @jlroush.

Tempe Police Department Subject-Matter Experts

Christopher W. Bruce
Mr. Christopher Bruce

Christopher W. Bruce was a crime analyst for 17 years in Massachusetts, for the Danvers Police Department (2001–2010), and the Cambridge Police Department (1994–2001). Throughout his career, he has been extremely active in the crime analysis community, as vice president of membership for the International Association of Crime Analysts (IACA) (2016–present), president of the IACA (2007–2012), vice president of administration of the IACA (2000–2006), and president of the Massachusetts Association of Crime Analysts (2000–2004). He frequently provides conference presentations on crime analysis and week-long training classes on topics such as crime mapping, spatial statistics, and the Microsoft Office applications.

Since 2011, Mr. Bruce has been the Analytical Director for the Data Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) program, providing workshops, training, and technical assistance through the International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training (IADLEST). He also works on a variety of other contracts for governmental and nonprofit programs, and is a senior lecturer in criminal justice at Tiffin University.

Noah J. Fritz, Ph.D.
Dr. Noah Fritz

Dr. Noah Fritz is the bureau manager of the Office of Management, Budget and Research at the Tempe, Arizona, Police Department and the past crime analysis manager at the San Diego County, California, Sheriff’s Department. Dr. Fritz returned to the field of crime analysis after spending five years as an assistant professor in the Criminal Justice & Criminology Department at the Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado. His primary area of research is crime mapping, crime analysis, and geographic information systems. He was the previous director and founder of the Crime Mapping and Analysis Program (CMAP)—a U.S. Department of Justice-sponsored training and technical assistance program—and served as the Deputy Director of National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center. He is currently serving his third term as President of the IACA (2000–2006 and 2016 to present).

Most notable accomplishments include a doctorate in justice studies and social inquiry from Arizona State University, a master’s from same, and undergraduate degrees in Sociology and Criminal Justice from Illinois State University. He has authored articles in Sociological Quarterly and the Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior; is a co-author of Exploring Crime Analysis (2004); and appeared nationally on ABC’s “Weekend News Edition” featuring crime mapping. He has been featured on public radio in Australia where he provided consulting services to the Victoria Police Department.

Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department Subject-Matter Experts

Joseph B. Kuhns, Ph.D.
Dr. Joseph Kuhns

Dr. Joe Kuhns is a professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Department of Criminal Justice & Criminology. Prior to arriving at UNC-C in 2003, Dr. Kuhns served as a Senior Policy Analyst at the U.S. Department of Justice (Office of Community Oriented Policing Services). He has worked on a wide range of research and evaluation projects focused on use of deadly force by and against police officers; alcohol, drug and violent crime relationships; and the impact of burglary offending and victimization. From 2005 to 2009, he worked with a number of scholars and with the Trinidad and Tobago Police Services to help to reduce violent crime and improve law enforcement services in that developing nation. His co-edited book about police use of force, firearms, and non-lethal weapons in various countries around the world was recognized with a Choice Award in 2010. Dr. Kuhns is currently working directly with a number of police departments, national law enforcement associations, and federal agencies to improve law enforcement practices, identify emerging priorities, and enhance officer and community safety.

Shannon E. Reid, Ph.D.
Dr. Shannon Reid

Dr. Shannon Reid is an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Dr. Reid’s primary research interests center on street gangs, juvenile incarceration, and peer networks. She received her Ph.D. from the University of California, Irvine. Dr. Reid is also the principal investigator on a five-year project funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) evaluating trauma-informed care for youth in community corrections. Her work has been published in Criminology, The Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Legal and Criminal Psychology and Deviant Behavior. Dr. Reid has also been employed as a research assistant at the Urban Institute in Washington, DC and as a crime analyst for the Alexandria Police Department in Virginia.

Cleveland Police Department Subject-Matter Experts

David A. Licate, Ph.D.
Dr. David Licate

Dr. David Licate is a Professor of criminal justice studies at the University of Akron. His leadership roles have included: coordinator for the Department of Criminal Justice Studies, Associate Director of the Center for Emergency Management and Homeland Security Policy Research (both at the University of Akron), and Executive Committee member for the Northern Ohio Violent Crime Consortium.

Dr. Licate has been a research partner on several federally funded grant initiatives focusing on the development of data-driven and evidence-based practices in policing organizations and a consultant for policing and homeland security agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. Attorney’s Office (Northern District of Ohio), and the Northeast Ohio Regional Fusion Center. He has instructed at the Ohio Peace Office Training Academy and Police Executive Leadership College on the topic of crime analysis, policing strategies and organizational change. Dr. Licate was selected by the Police Foundation and International Association of Crime Analysts to be a national crime analysis trainer for a federally funded initiative focused on building crime analysis capability in police departments.

Dr. Licate received his department’s award for outstanding teaching in 2009 and 2010 and was awarded the Dean Petry Outstanding Teaching Award for his college in 2012. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from Kent State University, a master’s degree in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati, a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice studies from Kent State University, and a graduate certificate in critical infrastructure protection from Texas A&M Engineering Extension.

Eric Jefferis, Ph.D.
Dr. Eric Jefferis

Dr. Jefferis is a professor in the College of Public Health at Kent State University. He is a social scientist with extensive research experience in the areas of violence and violence prevention. In addition to his academic appointment at Kent State University, he was also a research fellow at the university’s Institute for the Study and Prevention of Violence. Dr. Jefferis has served as principal or co-principal investigator on numerous funded research projects and has authored numerous research articles and research reports. His teaching interests include community-based interventions, research methodologies such as spatiotemporal analyses, and evaluation research methods. Prior to joining Kent State University, Dr. Jefferis was a social science analyst at the National Institute of Justice—the research, evaluation and development arm of the U.S. Department of Justice. His educational background includes a Ph.D. in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati, a master’s degree in criminal justice from Radford University, and a bachelor’s degree in the administration of justice from Pennsylvania State University.